Category: Other How-To Articles

Everything else that falls under the guides, how-to, tips and tricks categories.

Here’s how I cooked my homemade pizza

I never cook; I dabble. But then I enjoy dabbling in the kitchen every once in a while, and I almost always end up experimenting with new dishes (sometimes coming up with my own recipes mostly because I did not have something at home, or I burnt up what I did have.)

Today I got down to cooking one of my homemade vegetarian pizzas, famous within the four walls of my home if nowhere else. This is not the first time I’m doing this — I have cooked pizzas on a handful of occasions before — but I come back to this because pizzas are so easy to cook and taste good with little effort, but they are pretty hard to get perfectly right.

I cook with wine, sometimes I even add it to the food.

–W.C. Fields

With today’s attempt (which I made with more caution, care and by taking more time off — TLC and all that) I was actually overjoyed to end up with a pizza that tasted just like a pizzeria’s. So in this article I tell you how I did it.

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The nitty-gritty of making V.H.B.’s homemade pizza:

Time: 30 min (depending on how fast you are)

Serving: 2-4 (depending on your appetite)

N.B. 1 This is a vegetarian pizza.

N.B. 2 Oven settings get better by trail and error.

N.B. 3 There is no such thing as free Google Glass.


  • Pizza dough or base (I prefer to get a base because it saves time)
  • 1 tsp olive oil (Popeye’s girl, yeah)
  • 1 green capsicum, sliced
  • 1 red capsicum, sliced
  • 1 small onion, squared
  • 1 small zucchini (I use the green kind), sliced
  • 2 medium tomatoes, diced
  • Olives (as you like them)
  • Jalapeño (as you like them)
  • Baby corn (as you like them)
  • 1/2 cup mushroom, diced
  • 1/2 cum diced tofu, cubed
  • Mozarella or cheddar cheese (as per taste)
  • 500g tomato sauce
  • 200g tomato paste/puree
  • 1 tbsp oregano
  • 1 tbsp basil leaves, finely chopped
  • 1/2 tsp sugar
  • 1 tsp garlic (as per taste)
  • An oven (preferably in working condition)
  • Blender
  • Nvidia project shield (just because it’s so great to have)

Alright, now onto the serious stuff ahead.

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For photographs during cooking, scroll down a few inches.


There are three steps to making this pizza: preparing the vegetables (cutting, dicing etc., which I suppose you have already done,) and preparing the sauce, and, lastly, baking. You can cut, chop or dice as required; take a look at the list of ingredients above.

To prepare the sauce

This part is pretty easy: mix the tomato sauce (not ketchup, mind you,) and puree together in a bowl until they blend with each other. Then add the oregano, basil and sugar and stir it. If you like, a teaspoon of garlic would add to the taste. If you’re into a lot of yin and yang, go ahead and throw some salt and/or paprika to the mix.

That is it for the sauce. Keep it aside, let it settle and blend further with itself while you prepare the vegetables and toppings.

To prepare the vegetables

As you are preparing the sauce you might want to begin this step: marinate the onions, olives, capsicum, zucchini and tomatoes (and tofu, if you are using it,) in a cup of olive oil, basil and oregano.

Once you are done with the sauce, or after the vegetables have marinated to your taste (I just wait a brief five minutes,) take a wok or pan and add the olive oil into it. Then add the onions and zucchini and stir fry until the onions soften and become slightly golden brown. (Again, add a teaspoon of garlic if you like.)

Then add the tomatoes and capsicum and sauté them to a degree you like. I prefer the tomatoes boiled a quarter of the way: mostly raw, definitely not boiled. Besides, everything you do will almost be boiled once again when you put the stuff into your oven.

Set the pizza

So far we have our sauce and vegetables ready separately. Now you can do one of two things: mix them up well and spread them on the pizza base; or spread them out in layers — first the sauce on the base and then the vegetables over the sauce.

Finally, grate the cheese and spread it all over the pizza. I like to use mozarella cheese here because I like the way it bakes as well as the taste it acquires after baking; but you can use cheddar cheese too. I advise against being an adventurer and using something like pepper cheese because that just wrecks the whole pizza. (Who bakes pizza with pepper?)

A quick look at the steps in order: it is hard to cook and photograph at the same time! Click to enlarge.

Start baking

Here is a final checklist: you had the sauce ready, you had the vegetables ready, you had grated cheese ready, then you put them all up as you liked and set your pizza. The last step before popping it into the oven is to handcraft your dish by embedding the olives and jalapeño as toppings.

Preheat your oven to anywhere between 200° and 250°. I cannot say about all ovens, but mine does not do 200° preheating per se, but reaches an equivalent temperature when preheated for 10 minutes, then maintains that temperature for another 10 minutes before cooling down. This setup also does not hurt, since, by my experience, the baking itself rarely takes more than 7-8 minutes, and even less if you heat it up to 250°.

Now if you had not half-cooked the vegetables before, you might want to bake for twice as long (about 15-20 minutes) at about 250° to get the same results.

Important things to note while baking are to not turn on The Simpsons but instead to sit before your oven and peek through the glass to see how the cheese is doing. Take it out once the cheese has melted, spread like lava and engulfed your pizza’s surface. In other words, take your set up out of the oven once it starts to look like a pizza. Also be careful not to overdo this as it can leave you with a charred bag of wheat and lots of in-oven cleaning to do — and in case it does get charred, trust me, it does not taste good even if you use a glass of Cola to push it down.

If you have come so far without mishaps, congratulations: you can have V.H.B.’s homemade pizza for your meal, and, like that ritual after all pizzas, do not forget to run the extra mile tomorrow. [vhb]

Evernote Mobile – Part 1: Getting started

If you have not heard of Evernote, you definitely are living under a rock. Evernote is a powerful, cross-platform, note-taking and collaboration app. And if you read our recent notes-app comparison, you will see just how feature-rich Evernote is.

Now, on the other hand, if you have not yet got started with it for some reason, that is excusable. With this seven-part series, you are sure to be an advanced Evernote user (we call ourselves ‘Evernote junkies’) and — here is the real deal — you will be using Evernote not just as a note-taking app, but as one to improve your productivity and (seemingly) lengthen you day!

Evernote Mobile

I will only be talking about Evernote on mobile devices (be it iOS, Android or something else, Evernote is basically the same build-, design- and structure-wise) because its mobile app itself is so plump with features and targeted at several types of users that it is going to us seven interesting articles to cover.

I am going to be putting up  one every two or three days to help you digest the information effectively. So, today, let us start with a quick run-down of what Evernote is, what you can do with it and getting a basic understanding of how Evernote works.

Granted, this is for absolute beginners, but let us give all readers an even chance! If you are new to Evernote, this infographic below should give you a good feel for what it is and how it basically works.

Evernote at a glance for beginners - getting started - Infographic by VHBelvadi

In two days, get back here for an intermediate article, “Five tips and techniques to improving your Evernote organisation.” Until then, download Evernote on your mobile device and be armed. [vhb]

How to add an end mark to your articles on WordPress

END-MARKS ARE A typographical feature, most probably derived from the technology and computer-science industry, that employs a use of a symbol, text or icon to signal the end of a piece of text to the reader.

Personally, I am a great fan of end-marks, and I was using them in my first blog at but things changed later and, (unless I manually inserted them every time,) I had no way of fitting one into my articles… until now!

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As magazine features

If you have ever seen an end-mark before, it is probably in a magazine, at the end of every article (see picture below for examples.) Apart from being typographically good looking, these things serve to signal a more finished end to an article, much like a full stop does to a sentence. Once I managed to write a handful of code, I began employing end-marks on this website as my regular readers would probably have noticed.

Endmark examples

As I said already, manually inserting end-marks after every article is a tedious job; but, on the other hand, it cannot always be fully automated either. For instance, Colin Temple has a great endmark plugin that appends an end-mark of your choice to your articles.

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Endmark plugin

However, as I found out myself, if you have meddled with some of the code previously (or even if you have not, in some cases,) such as including certain sharing options after your blog post etc., the sharing buttons come wrapped into the main content division (they even do so native-ly on some themes) and you end up with an endmark after the sharing options, which can turn out to be awkward.

Colin’s plugin has some other features that need working, as he says on the website himself, but — if you care enough about your blog to remember adding an end-mark — I have a quick and foolproof solution for you with one of WordPress’ best introductions: shortcodes.

I have not come up with a method to fully automate it for the same reasons stated earlier, but if a code as simple as [x] is too hard to type in, then this exercise is not for you!

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What is a shortcode?

Ever since WordPress introduced shortcodes, the platform — and well neigh the blogosphere itself — has begun a sort of new era in that clients can do quite a bit of flexible work themselves now.

Basically, a shortcode is a small piece of text that signals the browser to do something a programmer has pre-programmed into your website. For instance, if I pre-programme a code into your website to print a red block every time you type in [red] then the code [red] is called a shortcode and you can use it without really knowing the original code that tells the browser to display the red block. (And you don’t have to call me up to find out how to do it either!)

In my solution, I decided to create a shortcode to my liking, and that is what I will show you now in as much step-by-step detail as possible.

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 Step #1:  Creating a shortcode

We will start by writing a small piece of code that does some simple things:

  • It tells the browser to start executing the end-mark function
  • It tells the browser what the end-mark is, and
  • It tells the browser how to recognise your request to display the end-mark

I have already written the most basic structure of that code for you, so all you have to do is copy it and hold on to it for now. (Hover over the code and click the second icon that appears to copy it.)


<!–?<span class="hiddenSpellError" pre=""–>php
function UniqueFunctionName() {
return ‘<p>fin</p>’;
add_shortcode(‘end’, ‘UniqueFunctionName’);


If you’d like, you can paste it onto a text editor like Notepad and edit certain areas. First of all, change the  UniqueFunctionName , in the two places that it appears, to a name of your choice. You can call it anything you like, but avoid spaces and use under_scores instead.

Next change the text that says  end  to whatever you want the shortcode to be. In this case, calling [end] will get the browser to load your end-mark. You can change it to anything you like; for instance, I keep mine as [ vhb ] so I can sign off with it each time I finish an article and have the end-mark displayed. While making changes at these places, be careful not to alter inverted commas and other punctuation.

Once you are done with the changes, copy the altered code to your clipboard (i.e. Ctrl+C on your PC, or Cmd+C on your Mac.)

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 Step #2:  Adding the code to your theme and calling it

Our next step is to add this code to our theme. There are several ways to do this, but if you are not too good with code, it is better to make as little change as possible to the original files, so below is the method I suggest.

[hr_padding] [notice type=”blue”] The best way to edit a theme is to leave the original files alone and create a child theme instead, but I will not explain that here since it is a huge topic on it own!

First go to your core files (your control panel/ftp area where your website files are stored) and create a new file; call it something like endmark.php. Of course, you can call it whatever you want, but this is the name I will be using in this tutorial.

Paste the code you copied (or the one you altered) in step #1 to the endmark.php file and save it.

Now we are going to make sure the lines of code that load your website onto a browser remember to call the new endmark.php file, else your shortcode will not work. Again, there are several ways to do this — including conditionally — but, since this code is light-weight and will hardly delay the page load time, we can afford to do it in a simple, straightforward manner.

Open your theme functions file (named functions.php) or a child-theme you have created and add the line of code that I have written below to it. If you do not know where exactly to add it, just make sure you put it before the  ?>  symbols at the very end.


Now, onto the next step!

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 Step #3:  Designing the end mark

By now I take it you have decided what your end-mark will be. Most prefer to use a small square block or an ancient, intricate glyph. I, for one, use my wordmark (see the end of this article.) If you have not, you have one more step before you start using the end mark, so start thinking!

In this step, we will make sure our end mark is displayed where we want it to. To start, open the endmark.php file.

If you have not made any alterations (except the ones stated in step #1) then, in the line 3, you should find this:  <p>fin</p> .

Alongside this I also suggest you open a new post editor on your WordPress dashboard, type in your endmark shortcode (in this case, [end]) and use the preview button to see how it is working out. The chances are you see the word fin at the end of the article, but it is on a new line. The reason for this is that html does not support multiple <p> tags on the same line. (One <p> tag is already being used by your body, and using a second one moves it to a new line — after all it is the paragraph tag!)

Now there are two things you might want to do here. You can either use this and, perhaps, center the end-mark on its own line; or you can push the end-mark to the same line as the last line of the article, like you see on this website.

Let us examine the first case: you can, of course, simply edit the  <p>’fin'</p>  tags in the endmark.php file to  


 , however, the align attribute of the paragraph tag is unsupported after HTML4.0 — in other words, you may not be able to do this successfully.

So our next solution is to use CSS, which does work. Simply change the line to something like  <p style=”text-align:center”>fin</p>  where the center attribute may be used as left also, to left-align the endmark.

The second case is if you do not want the end mark in a line of its own: edit line 3 to put the paragraph tags inside span tags like  <span><p>fin</p></span> . Preview your post now and, voila, you see the end mark in the same line as the last line of the paragraph.

[hr_padding] [notice type=”blue”] You might notice how I have a little space between the last full stop and the end mark on this website, but you cannot see so much space in your preview before the fin end mark we have added.

The trick is to use an HTML code called the non-breaking space (i.e. white space that the browser does not collapse.) You can do this by typing in  &nbsp;  where you need a space. Do it several times to leave lots of space.
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 Step #4:  Making the end-mark yours!

Who wants a lousy fin as their end mark? In this final step, we will make the end mark truly yours!

You have probably decided on what you want the end mark to be be now. Perhaps a square, or a circle, or a half-circle or a weird scribble, or an elvish initial, or maybe even your own signature like I used to use before. The simplest way to use this is to create an image; keep it within 10 – 14px in height, depending on your text, and making it square is always your best bet.

Upload the image somewhere — I strongly urge you to use your own website — and copy the image location. We will call this . JPG files are slimmest, and therefore the fastest to load, but you can use any common format you like.

All you have to do is replace the word  fin  in your endmark.php file with  <img src=””> . Replace our fake image location with yours and there you have it: your own unique end mark!

If you have any questions, feel free to ask me with a comment here or simply by dropping me an email, and I will help you as best as I can. Have fun with your new end mark. [vhb]

Everything you need to know about typography: Part III

IN THIS FINAL installment of our 3-article series on typography, we are going to get our hands dirty and take up a fairly complicated project and design typesets in a circumstance mirroring the real world.

[hr_padding] [notice type=”red”] Did you know that this is the third article on a series introducing you to the basics and intermediate levels of Typography? Head over to the first article, and then visit the second one too to get a better idea of what we’re doing in this post.
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Getting hired on a typesetting project

It is going to be a hands-on, real-world experience, so do not take the back seat and read through this. Try, instead, to participate every step of the way and go to a step only after you have finished the last. I have coded this article to make that easy for you. To start, click step 1, and once you are done, click step 2 to reveal it and so on. That way you will not sneak a peak involuntarily.

And before we go on, here is a word about our client of today: he is going to need us to typeset a heavily textual, offline work, covering consistency, readability and overall appearance, and he has several demands that we will learn from him soon. But we shall try to handle it in ways that can be used for either an offline or online work — and for you to get a good picture about on-set typography.

Ready? Dive in! Here is our client walking through the door. We have no idea what his name is, so we’ll just call him Richie.

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Richie’s newspaper typography requirements

Richie is a newspaper editor who owns a local daily called the City Lights Tribune. He needs us to design a newspaper for him, and his requirements are –. Let us hear them in his own words:

[hr_padding] [notice type=”green”] “I’m going to need you to typeset my newspaper for me. Use the usual dimensions. I want the title to stand out, but none of that old English typefaces that everybody uses. Go for something different. I like it modern, but not so modern that it loses the touch of a newspaper and people don’t take it seriously.

“My articles are going to be of three levels. I’ll have a major headline or two, a few important stories and few unimportant news items. Your typesetting must make that clear. And don’t forget colours! I’ll also need a space for just titles and page numbers for navigation and such. That’s what I need. I’ll leave the rest to your discretion. Do a good job of it!”

So there goes the man out the door. Now let us begin working on his paper. By the usual dimensions he probably refers to the rectangular layout of a newspaper, so we shall disregard specifics for now and head right to typesetting it. We shall be using lorem ipsum as dummy text, so if you have no idea what that is or do not know how to get it, take a look at this article.

When you’re ready, head to step 1.

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So, have you taken yourself through the above steps? It is time to take a look at the final product. As your third and final typography lesson comes to an end, and you prepare to brave out the world with your newly found knowledge, here is a final piece of typographical work for you, as part of this three-article series. Click on the thumbnail below. (On the top right corner, you’ll find a tiny grey box. Click it to magnify the image.)

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So that ends our fun typography blog/workshop! I hope you have enjoyed it as much as I enjoyed writing it for  you. And I certainly hope it will be of use to you at some point of time in the future. As always, if you have any doubts or would like to drop a kind word, you know how to get in touch with me!

Everything you need to know about typography: Part II

WELCOME BACK TO the 3-aricle series on the A to Z of typography. This part continues from part I that we saw previously, so if you have missed out on that, make sure you head over to part I and familiarise yourself with all the jargon and basics of typography before continuing with this; you are bound to benefit best that way.

If you have already come through that route, keep going right on! In this part we will discuss several more interesting — and, more importantly, fun — things like I had promised last time. Here is a quick look at the highlights of this article:

  1. Considerations when selecting typefaces
  2. Web-safe typefaces
  3. Standard print typefaces in the publishing industry, and
  4. Some good, important rules and practices when handling typefaces

In this article I am going to make fairly open use of some of the terminology you have learnt in the preceding article, so try to keep up. Any time you cannot, just keep the first article open in a alternate tab on your browser!

[hr_padding] [notice type=”green”] After Part 1 of this series, I got several requests to deal with the problem of the near-infinite scrolling, since these are considerably long posts. (This part, for instance, is around 3,000 words long.)

So I sat down, and, with a handful of code and a slightly altered design around that region, managed to break down this post into three pages.

Once you reach the bottom of this page, you have a direction-link to the following pages. Use that to navigate and reduce any stress of scrolling!
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The A, B, C of type selection

You are faced with the dilemma of choosing the right typeface for your work more often than you think. Over 65% of the working population out there does not really bother about the type they set their work in (but they do later spend a lot of time wondering why it does not look as good — I’m particularly talking to Richard Campbell, one of my readers who mailed me regarding this and requested me for a series on Typography.) 25% — which includes you — actually take interest in the field and try to learn from the rest of us who know. That said, the next time you start typing something, start paying more attention to the typeface of your document or book or webpage and you will find it helps immensely.

Plaque for Elrod machine

Plaqe for Edinburgh’s Elrod machine. Image courtesy: Flickr/edinburghcityofprint

When you are considering a typeface, you will naturally have to keep three key points in mind: readability, complementary behaviour, and consistency. Now these are terms you can easily understand: readability refers to how easy the typeface is on the eyes; complementary behaviour is how well one typeface works with another (or several others) in the document/webpage; and consistency is how the typeface works over several weights, styles, sizes and so on.

[hr_padding] [notice type=”yellow”] Remember! Do not confuse readability with legibility.

Readability refers to how easy the font is on the readers’ eyes, and in turn how well suited it is especially for long periods of reading; this is especially in the case of books or articles.

On the other hand, legibility is how high the chances are of every single reader being able to read the typeface with ease. For instance a curvy, flourishing font — while obviously disturbing as part of a large block of text — wold be perfectly fine to use fleetingly as a heading text so long as an O does not look like Q. You get the point.
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Of course this would entirely depend on what you are going to use it for: if it is a book title or webpage heading, you do not have to bother as much about readability as you do about legibility. The same goes for consistency, as the rate of variation of such choice of fonts is narrow at best.

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A CaSe LiKe LeX in typography

There are 6 factors to remember when choosing a typeface, and — since we can afford to rush through this list quickly — I have created a simple mnemonic to help you remember it. If you are a fan of Superman (comics of film) you can definitely not forget an iconic villain, a nutcase like Lex Luthor! So let us take Lex’s help in remembering this list: CaSe LiKe LeX

Needless to say, pay attention to my weird spelling. This is what the six capital letters stand for: Cap-height, Serif, Ligature, Kerning, Leading and X-height. Five of these you have already learnt, but since we have not seen what a ligature is previously, I created a simple equation to help you remember. (And if you are not a fan of equations, just think of this as a typographical diagram!)

Some font have — and many a time typographers make sure that — the kerning between two letters gets so fearfully close that the set-up looks clumsy as two letters, but much more beautiful as a single entity.

The finest example in type-history is the ligature between an f and an i. In some fonts (the one you see above is Robert Silmbach‘s beautiful Minion from the 90s — an entirely digital font) typing f and i in a word, in sequence, creates a ligature that looks very similar — but should not be confused with — an h.

In particular, the term ligature refers to the crossbar-like horizontal stroke joining the two letters.

The thing about CaSe LiKe LeX is that you need to make sure, for an idea you previously had in mind, that a given typeface satisfies all these six needs just right. It is as simple as having an idea, picking possible typefaces, and making sure the six properties of a typeface matches with your idea.

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Web safe typefaces: what are they and why do we need them?

Whenever we talk about typography in the twenty-first century, a standard assumption is that we create a distinction between print typefaces and websafe typefaces.

The distinction is mainly based on availability. If we reeled back to the 1800s or even the early 1900s, and you were thinking of publishing a pamphlet (which was all the rage then) you could only choose between select typefaces — the ones whose slugs the type-caster or publisher had. If you did not find what you were hoping for, he would probably tell you, ‘Head over to Gustaveson’s press, he’s got the typeface you’re looking for,’ or something to that effect.

Fast forward to the 21st century and that problem is solved. With digital printing for books, if you want a font, you will, of course, get it. But a new problem has cropped: this is not true for the web. Much like in the 1800s, if  I want my webpage in a certain typeface and you do not have its font installed on your computer, you can never see my webpage! History repeating itself? Not quite, as we have a work around this — meaning we can now build webpages with almost any font and have in shown in almost any computer regardless of whether a font is installed in it or not; but we will see more about this technique in the final installment of this series.

For now, what you need to understand is that some fonts (mostly the ones that come pre-installed with your computers, be it a mac or a PC) are available in all computers all over the world. These are called web safe fonts and are just as safe as their name suggests. If you are familiar with codes, you will know how we often set a fallback font — or several fallback fonts — to make sure the webpage is delivered as close to what we envisioned as possible.

Everything you need to know about typography: Part I

[dropcap1]I[/dropcap1] AM A self-confessed type-nerd and hobbyist typographer. To me, typography is more than a subject and typefaces more than designs. And I believe the choosing right typefaces can convey a powerful message, and — unfortunately — choosing the wrong ones can be devastating.

[hr_padding] [notice type=”red”] This is part of a 3-article series that continues onto the second article. Continue reading here.
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But choosing fonts is more than just liking one and picking it: there are factors to consider, from legibility to atmosphere; and technical details to pay attention to, such as the ones we will see in this post series. And that is why I choose to write this quick, three-part series on how to choose typefaces for any work you take up in the future: in particular, the ever-growing population of websites, web designers and the like; and alongside them people whipping up their own ebooks or, equally importantly, to those looking to bring out books offline (particularly my good friend, Raghul Selvam, who I hope is benefited by this post as much as I intended.)

The point is that one needs to know quite a lot about typefaces and typography before they are able to take a good enough decision and make their work look professional.

[hr_padding] [notice type=”yellow”] Did you know?

Contrary to popular belief, there are a handful of sentences containing all letters of the English language. Here are some of them:

  • Grumpy wizards make toxic brew for the evil Queen and Jack.
  • The quick, brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
  • Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs.
  • Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz.
  • Amazingly few discotheques provide jukeboxes.

Such sentences are actually called pangrams. Can you think of more?

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While the subject is exhaustively large, in these three articles I intend to bring out as much information as is necessary, and sufficient, for anybody hoping to embark on dealing with typography on their own. (And if, at any time, you require suggestions, do feel free to contact me — or perhaps consider using my own fonts: I have two fonts under my belt, as a typographer.)

Now, with all this in mind, here is how I am going to divide this series of posts into three parts:

  1. The technical stuff: This is where we discuss the geeky jargon and get to know our alphabets and styles better. By the end of this, you will be able to communicate type-stuff with ease; besides, you’ll sound smart!
  2. Typographical practices: Moving onto more interesting stuff, this is where we go over the standards in professional typography. Here you’ll also gather some tips (secrets?) that will get you great results.
  3. Real-world experiments: In this final article, we’ll go through some great, real-world examples and create a neat design ourselves and put our newly-acquired knowledge to practice before shouting “Eureka!”

Trust me, to dive into book publishing without knowing your types is a recipe for disaster. It’s not just useful, but absolutely important, to understand typography as an art, inside-out, before jumping in. And I assure you the things I’ll teach you over the next three articles will condense all of known typography into a quick reference guide to look back at any time.

But that’s enough talking. So are you ready? Let’s begin!

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Alphabets, glyphs and other basics

Any typeface is basically categorised into two symbols: one, the letters we use in our languages, the ones we call alphabets; and, two, the symbols, including punctuation — such as full stops, commas etc. — and, by-and-large, all special characters. These we call by a different term called glyphs.

Alright, now that’s a new term you learnt, so for quick reference you may need any time later, let us put that into a box:

[hr_padding] [notice type=”yellow”] Glyphs are special characters that a font creator has decided to include in the font; these are compulsorily the basic Latin punctuation, and often include some symbols unique to the font that its creator has made up for the user. [/notice]

Glyphs are not to be confused with dingbats which we will discuss later.

Before we progress any further, let use clarify the difference between a typeface and a font. This is where many people go wrong, and many actually use these terms interchangeably — which is quite wrong. The basic difference between a font and a typeface is that the term typeface refers to the design, the way sets of letters and symbols look; while the container they are in, a computer file (in modern times) or heavy iron slugs (in ancient presses) are called fonts.

As Stephen Coles puts it, “When you talk about how much you like a tune, you don’t say: ‘That’s a great MP3.’ You say, ‘That’s a great song.’ The MP3 is the delivery mechanism, not the creative work; just as in type a font is the delivery mechanism and a typeface is the creative work.”
To illustrate this example, if somebody were to ask me the type (or typeface) in which my website content is set, I would say it is set in one of my favourite fonts, Georgia — frankly, I think Georgia is one of those perfect typefaces! Now if you want to download Georgia onto your computer, you would look for the font called Georgia i.e. a .ttf or .otf file, which is like a container carrying the typeface. Savvy?

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The five landmarks of character recognition in typography

There are well over twenty-five or thirty terms in typography, most of which you will never use unless you take up publishing as a career (trust me, I’m still looking for an excuse to use some of them!) That said, we will not define five basic terms you simply must know: I call these jokingly as the five landmarks of typeface recognition. On a serious note though, if you can account for these five, you will be able to differentiate almost all typefaces in existance; their character anatomies all differ from each other in at least one major landmark.

Characteristic letters such as the small-case m, n, or capital-case Q, O etc. all have, at their uppermost limit, a downward curvature. This curvature is called a bowl. It may also be sideways, such as in the cases of p and R.

[hr_padding] [notice type=”yellow”] A bowl or a loop is the fully closed, rounded part of a character, as seen in p, m, R, Q etc.

You may have recognised, by now, that we are mainly dealing with Latin alphabets — and we will keep it that way.

On Google+ Netiquette

Having recently deleted my Facebook account, I hardly took time to realise how most of my networking would now take place on Google+ — which is how I preferred it in the first place. And the main reason I chose to switch, is exactly for reasons I have explained before in my four-part series of articles on Google+.

[T]oday, though, as I was scrolling through my Google+ stream, a thread I had conversed in, with Olav Folland1, Mark Rodriguez and few other great guys, came to mind. In the pith, it turned out to focus on how certain etiquettes cannot be forced; so I decided to round-up a few that I could think of, similar to my older article on 16 ethics on Twitter. Right now, the list is short, but I expect it to grow with time (and the Google+ user base.) If you have your own etiquettes, feel free to suggest them in the comments and I’ll add them to the list!

1. The +1 button is no less than a comment

I have noticed how an increasing number of people have been commenting things like Cool! or Awesome or LOL or Funny and so on. While this is all very generous, my suggestion is not to comment unless you are really adding something to the conversation, have so much to praise that you have to spill out words effectively by commenting or you are the OP. In all other cases, cool, awesome, LOL, funny are effectively equal to a simple +1.

The +1 button saves time, both the OP’s and the commentor’s and is generally received with no less enthusiasm than a comment. So if you can gesture a neat +1, don’t bother commenting; it works both ways!

2. Use the notification button sparingly

Google+ brings forth a new concept in the form of its notify option where you can ring a bell on somebody’s profile to let them know about the post you just made.

But everybody knows bells are noisy, so use them sparingly. People with a large following are the most likely prey to this unchecked notification spree many people go on. As Tracy Crawford pointed out, if even a hundredth of her followers notified her once a month, “it would be far too many!”2

Notification has its uses in times such as conversing in groups when notifying participants will prevent them from having the thread drowned in their stream by bringing their attention to it. But overuse of this for lame reasons such as just trying it out or to garner attention to one’s self is almost unforgivable–not to mention annoying if overdone. This isn’t Facebook, you have an open option not to force everything on everybody, so make the most of it; yet, minimise notifications even to concerned circles unless you can thoroughly justify what you did.

So the next time you think of notifying somebody, think again is it’s really (really) necessary. If it is, go ahead,; and if it is not, have pity on the other party.

3. To (re)share or credit?

It’s one thing to share somebody’s post; it is an entirely different thing to give credit to them. Well, they put it up, you better give them credit!

Of course, the original poster is notified of the share when you share it, but there are some things to keep in mind. Especially when you and the OP have followers in common, sharing soon after the OP shared it is pointless. It just appears in everybody’s stream multiple times. Added to this, if a post has already been shared several times, you can be sure it would have reached a large number of Googlers (and improved its chances of appearing in Google Search!)

Courtesy, Blogger Buzz

The alternative is to give credit: this can be as a comment to their post, a separate update voicing your views (if they are numerous enough and go deep enough to be worth a read.) Even adding a simple adjective and +Mentioning them will make a visible difference.

4. The Circle Formula

Another major difference (and a great one, if I may add) is Google’s abolition of the You follow me, I’ll follow you attitude that really took nobody anywhere on other social networks.

When you circle somebody, do it genuinely, not fervently hoping they will circle back. However, when somebody circles you, take a look at their profile. You can never tell when an interesting person is around you until you endeavour to find out. But the point is that you can do it in the comfort of knowing there is no compulsion to circle anybody back. Unlike most other social networks, following on Google+ is not mutual and this allows for better connection between people.

The attention herders from point #2 above are present here too. One can find them strolling Google+ with rather useless comments to make, but make it often enough that you read their name over and over again until you decide to check their profile — or something to that effect. You get the point.


I think hangouts are where netiquette turns into etiquette, another fine example of how the Google+ formula reflects real life closer than ever.

I need hardly go into the decencies in hangouts: a web camera is not the sole requirement in a hangout. You also need a bucketload of respect and a tub full of politeness, among other things you ought to know by now. There is of course the social dictum, ‘Don’t talk when you have to listen;’ Or perhaps it says you should not talk over somebody else? Such manners we involuntarily adopt in daily life go a long way in making a hangout worth everybody’s time.

6. Huddle selectively

Just because you know calling many people will increase your chances of getting a positive reply, it does not mean you should randomly invite you 500-strong circle to a huddle.

If sharing posts is to selective circles, huddling goes twice the distance. When an Android and/or iPhone user decides to start huddling with the people in his circle, he is literally calling everybody for a casual conversation that often turns out to be aimlessly wandering with too many people saying too many things, picturing a different end. It helps to tailor your huddle to select people, all of whom you know would be really interested in the issue at hand.

Remember that a huddle is not a soapbox speech where one talks and the others have the option of disregarding them. A huddle is where people have accepted invitations to a group chat, so make their chat — like in all other aspects so far — worthwhile.

7. Scrutinise your shares

This is not so much a netiquette as it is something you ought to give time to. In short, avoid ridiculous talking cats (and cats playing pianos) and animated GIFs of any species.

Share things that you would enjoy reading/seeing if somebody else shared it and it came on your stream. It’s like that old rule of “do not do what you would not want done to you.” The point of Google+ is that a different, and even mature, community has formed around it which welcomes everybody so long as they know how to conduct themselves well. While on Google+ make sure you use, rather than abuse, the network’s features; and make double sure that you are not doing anything without the intention of enriching others’ streams.


Now these seven points are not the only unanimously agreed rules of netiquette on Google+, but they are a start. Personally, I think it is a list worth building so if you have your own views (or are opposed to any of the the seven already put up here) share it below!

For more on improving your Google+ experience, you might want to read my series on Google+. You can also join me on Google+.

  1. Take a look at his I am project. It’s a masterpiece in conceptual photography! 

  2. She has about 14,900 followers as of the time of this posting, so that would mean 149 notifications every month; almost 5 a day. 

10 people to follow on Twitter and add value to your stream

Twitter is here to stay. Many spoke of how Google+ may be a threat to Twitter–or words to that effect–but my own belief is that Twitter is something along entirely different lines and Google+ has nothing to do with it. With this in mind, I can safely state that Twitter is the only other social network I am active in, besides Google+, and if you have not tasted the network much or, like thousands of others, have created an account you probably do not even remember, I strongly suggest you go back start becoming active.


This list I have built up is of ten of those who have added value to my Twitter stream and to yours too if you will start following them. While this can serve as a starting point to people who are new to Twitter, it is also a checklist for the others to make sure they are not missing out on some great stuff by not following these awesome people.

Needless to say, I follow all of them. But let us not spend too much time on chatter; head over to the list1below (which is in no particular order.)

Before you jump in, click here to start following me on Twitter if you like!

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  1. If you cannot see the images above, the list includes these people: Marsha Collier,  Alexis Madrigal, Jeff Elder, Ed Yong, Maria Popova, Phil Plait, Michael Merced, Tilly Blyth, Robert Reibold and Andrew Cohen. 

How to make the best use of your Google+ profile

Back when I was invited to Google+, it took me less than a week to realise what a big phenomenon it would become; and while it felt good to be a part of that before public release, I also realised I had to leverage its power and integration to my benefit: specifically to benefit my online presence, my website and so on. To a small extent, this would also affect my offline persona. In this final installment of my +You series, we shall examine how you can squeeze the juice out of your Google profile.


This is the last of a 4-part article series on Google+. Read the others here:

Understand the effect of Google+ on you

Google+ as I have said many a time before, is called plus for a reason. It is designed to help Google Search in more ways than one. Today, Google+ released their new, landmark algorithm, Search plus your world, and this will exactly prove my point.

Think about it this way: you have a family doctor you stick with. You do so because he knows the ins and outs of your life, your medical history and so on. Now bring that concept into the Internet. If you are looking for something, it is quite probable (and happens about 75% of the time) that a number of concepts, news, images and videos match what you are looking for.

Now the thing that is searching for you is just that, a thing. It has no mind of its own, and it therefore becomes necessary for that robot to learn something about you. Enter Google+: as a Google+ user you have created your community, shared things you liked, declared +1 for things you liked, spoken about your thoughts, views and promoted your work. Google Search is going to start considering all such activities on your part to improve its search feature so it can deliver better search results (i.e. it can present you things closer to what you were actually looking for, than before!)

It is an entirely different story that the result of this algorithm has turned out to be a great success. But that is a topic for an entirely different blog post which I am planning on for the next couple of days.

How is this going to affect your business?

Since Google+ will come into consideration, I suggest you start considering it an extremely important part of your online presence if you haven’t already done so. Now, I do not work for Google, nor write on their behalf, but, from a neutral standpoint, I would sum it up this way:

You may be a fan of Facebook, or another infamous social network. I do not suggest you migrate from it. It is quite easily understood that you have spent your time creating a community and getting in touch with lost friends on Facebook and to many, migrating to Google+ would be a huge undoing.

All you need to do–at least–is have your Google+ profile up to date along with a Google+ badge on your site. If you do not have a site, just keep your Google+ profile filled in the manner I will now explain to you. This is an official requirement from Google, and trust me, if you are not seen in the first page of the Google search results, you might as well be invisible.

To prove my point, I have below a collage of two screenshots; on the one on your left, it shows a user searching for photography tips and another searching for Google+ daily photography themes. Notice how my articles (highlighted) are present above the fold (within the first six search results) in either case? Now these are just two I had in hand so I put them up.

Specifically, it is important that you understand the next couple of points I am going to explain. But before that, also understand that a so-called ego-search will give your Google profile right at the top of the search results (unless, perhaps, you have a good website) and potential employers looking for you might skip if the first thing that comes up is one of your questionable Facebook photographs. You get the point.

A little code magic

I would be underrating Google Search if I said all you have to do to get up on the search page like you see my article in the picture above is adding a tiny bit of code to your site/external profile. No, remember that content is still what matters and what I will explain is just a little aid. But really, it is a feature Google is working on which has not gone public so you might not see the same results that invitees like myself see. In short, our Google product pages might be a little different from yours, but do not worry; rest assured yours will get updates as well.

Now the process I am talking about is simple, but it requires you to understand a simple concept Google uses called author and me relationships. This is to a) let Google know that it is you with the Google profile who is, say, writing an article/putting up a photo; and b) let Google know that you who are, say, writing an article/putting up a photo have a linked Google profile. These are called rel HTML tags.

With me so far? Alright, I have made a small image explaining these rel tags.

HTML rel tags for Google+

Notice how this creates a virtual circle for Google+. This circle ensures Google that the person in question is really you no matter which website you participate in (and not just your blog/website) and it makes sure nobody drops into the circle uninvited and posts questionable content under your name.


The first code you will have to add to your profile anywhere is the rel=”author” code, signifying that the relationship between you, the content and your profile is that you are the author. In stricter terms, it tells Google that the person with such and such a profile ID is the author because your profile ID is how Google recognises you (at least until Google makes vanity URLs a possibility.)

Google uses one key page as a sort of filter. Generally, we content creators use our author page (popularly called the About page) for this sake.

When linking from anywhere to your about page, especially when you are doing it from other pages on your site or from the navigation bar, or when you are doing it through the typical short bio that appears at the end of your articles, make sure you add this code:

This tells Google that the person whose author page is is the author of the article. You can take a look at my own bio at the end of this article. I have linked it to my author page using the same code above.


The next code you need to add is the rel=”me” code, signifying to Google Search that you are the guy who claims to own Google Profile ID so and so. Observe how this works beautifully now (I’ll try to put forth this complicated point as best as I can!)

From everywhere you are active on the Internet, you are credited as the author and linked to a basic author page of your choice telling that page you are the author; this author page in turn links to your Google Profile telling Google that you are the owner of a given profile ID. In other words, Google now knows you with that profile ID are the author of all those other pages on the Internet.

So now we will link your author page to Google using this simple code:

You now need to head to this authorship form and fill it up. But know that you will not see changes soon; instead, the fact that you are all ready to be featured in Google’s search results will be notified to them and they will queue you when the feature is finalised and goes out as a stable public version.

The result? Something like this:

Other benefits of a good, filled Google Profile

One thing you need to understand is that Google+ profiles are really a carry over from the previously existing Google Profiles. I am quite surprised by the large number of people who had no idea of this. If, when you first joined Google+, you found your profile filled, it was because you had already entered those details in various other Google products and Google integrated all that data. However, Google Search had never been integrated with it, and that is what Google has done now.

To some, this looks like a cunning marketing strategy to get people to use Google+ but to others, including myself, this is a wonderful (not to mention easy) way to get worthy publicity, especially if you are a content creator (and all bloggers are.) Google is on its way to integrating the web and creating a smarter experience for everybody who deserves it, and they are using Google+ to personalise everything for a person. The fact therefore is that you need to use your Google+ Profile to leverage Google Search just like Search is using your Profile!

Why not Facebook?

Now you might wonder why Facebook cannot do this; after all they already have too much of your data–a good chunk of it extremely private–and with every passing day hundreds of websites are linking to Facebook. The answer is quite simple: Facebook’s policy has successfully blocked the company from any development whatsoever, in this direction.

As Edd Dumbill writes on O’Reilly Radar, Facebook “does not want to be the web. It would like to draw web citizens into itself.” This clearly renders it a closed platform where, while people connect and get in touch very eagerly with lost friends (whom they should not have lost in the first place,) it does not exercise control over any other part of the Web. While Facebook can engage your existing social circles, it cannot help publicise your work to the outside world as much as one Google Search entry can.

Facebook has often been criticised, after the coming of Google+, as not reflecting real life friendships and social circles as well as the search engine giant’s networking offspring. But my own advice to you is to stick with Facebook if you have a good following there and use your Google Profile as much as I have mentioned in this article.

Good luck on the new Web!

5 Tips for Photography on Google+

I had no idea–and I do not think anybody did–that Google+ would become so popular  for photographers, and photography per se, as it has become today. With Google+, often dubbed a photographer’s paradse, Picasa received a terrific lot of attention, Flickr may start losing out soon if Yahoo! does not come up with remarkable new ideas, and smaller portfolios such as 500px are seeing a wave of their photographers moving their entire work to Google+. Read more →

Google+ vs Facebook: 10 reasons why Google+ is far better

As PCWorld rightly pointed sometime out last year, the comparison of Google+ vs Facebook (which the masses generally draw) is an uneven one. Google+ is a far bigger picture for Google than one might imagine: my own way of putting it, as I have said to many of my acquaintances, is that Google is on its way to becoming a Skynet, although in a good way as things now stand.


This is part 1 of a 4-part article series on Google+. Read the others here:

For Google as a corporation, the Google+ Project is a landmark venture where they aim to bring together all their products, most of them the best in their niche, to make each thrive on the other and deliver an infinitely better user experience, centering on a users–you guessed it–Google+ profile.

Therefore a better way to put the tie would be, Google versus Facebook. Google+ simply isn’t one product anymore. In my opinion, it is quite ready to take on the Google Search robe as the corporation’s face on the Web. And the project has seamlessly integrated all Google products to such an extent, Google+, with respect to a given user, is really all of Google.

So let us see ten unique places I have spotted, over my stay on Google+ (and since I bid goodbye to Facebook quite a while ago,) where Google fares better enough than Facebook to convince anybody to switching to it. Personally, though, I recommend people not to switch: right now, only select people who share posts worth others’ while are populating Google+1and we do not want this becoming just another Facebook.

Without further ado, let us go through the ten key aspects I have in mind.

1. Google retains your privacy

I recall somebody once saying Zuckerberg (deserves a bravery award because he) values his privacy more than yours.

Facebook has a habit of compulsorily requiring you to make certain sensitive data of yours publicly visible. Google+ has no such strings attached. In fact, all Google requires you to adhere to strictly is that you do not pose as somebody you are not. Understandably, going against this rule will get you banned from all Google products, but I think it is a good thing considering that it will filter out those characteristic Facebook posters (who were probably once characteristic MySpace posters) who waste your time, right at the start.

In short, though, Google+ is designed to allow you to retain absolute control of your privacy at every point of usage, with both specific settings and general preferences.

2. You can say bye with a snap of your finger

No, really. If you have ever tried deleting your Facebook account, you will know exactly what  mean. It is impossible to fully delete your posts and updates. And pictures. And notes. And sensitive/embarrassing talk if any.

On Google+ you can use their Data Liberation tool to download all your data, pack up and leave Google+ without a public trace. And when I say all, I mean absolutely everything: your videos, Picasa web albums, shares/updates, contacts and anything else you can think of.

If you have not done it already, I strongly urge you to try deleting your Facebook account. Do not worry accidentally deleting it; you cannot delete in even on purpose.

3.  Better group activities

If there is one Google+ feature (apart from photo sharing) that beats every other social network hands down, it has to be Hangouts.

Have you seen what Google did with that poor web camera you get fit into your laptop? I have been invited to roughly thirty hangouts so far (not public hangouts, specific invite-only hangouts) and the interaction is just perfect. I will not be surprised if Facebook comes up with a counterpart, but given the present assets, it would not be hard to guess whose would be better–and who has a head start?

4. Professional setting on Google+

If LinkedIn spelled formal and professional social networking up to this point, I am beginning to feel Google+ will take over now.

Your profile on Google+ is slick, smooth, minimalist and you are in enough control to take out specific things and entirely hide unnecessary stuff. This, coupled with the fact that Google+ has a smaller user base of select individuals, makes way for recognition, good business exposure, personal/freelance popularity and so on.

If you have not begun to do so already, I recommend you harness the true power of Google+ in this regard.

5. Integration within the Web

Some may consider this to be the most important point so far, but I think fifth is where it should stand: but, yes, it is both important and vital.

When I was invited to try Google+ before it was released to the public, I had already begun using Google’s black bar on top without realising others I knew did not really have it on their accounts! The bar was a tad different then, but the concept remained quite the same even after development: to make your network accessible from any Google product at any time.

The way I see it, this would be over half our time on the Web. Consider Google Search, Picasa, Google+, Analytics, GMail, YouTube and any of the several other Google products you can think of. The slim black bar lets you connect to most of these–with specific focus on Google+–from any other product website.

6. Better network management

One thing I used to despise on Facebook was the way people there had (and probably still have) hundreds of so-called friends. If you  cannot recount the name of every single one of them, you might as well not add them. Friend requests and status updates were making and breaking jobs and relations–too much hold for a robotic binary programme, don’t you think?

On Google+ you can neatly organise your network into any number of categories, call it anything you want and share specifically, without wasting the precious time of those who do not give a damn about that particular update of yours.

This also nullifies my previous question, just in case you are still wondering. Google’s Circles is arguably their finest concept, mirroring daily life: how we make different circles of friends, meet and talk and share differently with each of them and so on. And Google+ allows you to bring that priceless habit onto your second life on the Web.

It adheres to the age old formula: replicate real life for the best results!

7. Better (best?) mobile application

Whether it be iPhone or Android or any other second-tier mobile OS, you have a Google+ application that stamps the rest to the ground.

Unfortunately, I got my Google+ Android app only a week before its public release and I did not have enough special time to appreciate its numerous, rich features fully. Over time, however, there are some things you will notice2.

Given that Android is also a Google product, the commenting, updating and other such features subtly integrate themselves into the design of the OS and make accessing Google+ a breeze unlike Facebook’s app, or instance, which requires you to access the homescreen repeatedly, for a lot of reasons.

8. Easy to search within Google+

Google’s third much hyped feature is Sparks. I hardly took notice of it before public release–and I doubt anybody else did–but the true power of Sparks became apparent only much later when a good lot of content had been shared. It was like a small, but equally intense, Google Search stitched into Google+ that allowed you to search your network with great ease.

While it is clear that Google’s previous stand as a search engine played a major role in this, what is more important is that this feature, which seems all so obvious now, had been overlooked in every other social network prior to Google+; and in my opinion, none–even if they do appear at a later point of time–will be in a position to beat Google’s Sparks simply because of Google’s leverage in the searching world online.

9. Better photo sharing and tagging

It is by no means an overstatement to say Google+ is the new photographer’s paradise. There was (still is) 500px, Flickr and so on, but Google’s policy, Picasa integration, tagging technology, viewing–and the elephantine photographer count that exists here–seems to have beat them all in one sweep.

I know many photographers who are leaving other sites slowly but confidently to back-file their entire work to Google+. As for tagging people, when I was on Facebook, many months ago, I kept stressing on a particular clause in their terms of use that said nobody could tag a user without their consent. But (rather intelligently) Facebook made no attempt to stop such tagging and it annoyed me severely. On Google+, however, tagging a person notifies them and the tag appears only if they concur. So that is bidding goodbye to childish tagging in unrelated and/or compromising photographs that Facebook came to be known for even if not quite publicly.

10. Google listens to you

That is right. Google values user feedback more than any other multinational corporation I have come across.

Know that little grey box that says Send Feedback on the bottom right? It is quite generally known that the only people who value feedback enough to actually change their site are those who run personal websites, blogs and such. But Google has taken things in good spirit, and that feedback form is actually more advanced than it seems at first.

You are allowed to highlight parts of the page where you plan to give suggestions, point out to errors etc. as well as black out any personal information you wish to keep hidden. Then you type in your suggestion and send it to Google.

Will anything happen? Trust me, they actually listen to you. As I said before, this might not exactly be what one would expect from a company the size of Google but there have been suggestions I have myself made and a number of them I have seconded or chipped into and these have actually been adopted as changes in Google+

It is fun to see your suggestion has been valued and things have been changed for the better. This also keeps with Google’s open-source spirit and makes the network one that is run by its users rather than an unseen body. Good uses people have been making of the feedback box is requesting for slight alterations to the existing Google+ terms of usage and there have been multiple records where Google has brought out changes.

This flexibility is by far the best reason–from a user satisfaction standpoint–to switch to Google+ and dump Facebook for good.

I am not in any way associated with Google or Facebook, and this review has been from a neutral standpoint. Clearly, I state that the scale tips in favour of Google as my list clarifies!

Before you leave, do not forget to join me on Google+ and circle too!

  1. Statistics show 1. most of these are male 2. most are professionally oriented people 3. the users appear to have unanimously maintained a formal ambience around Google+ 4. there is less than even a fraction of the nonsense, cat jokes floating around on Facebook. If asked to put it bluntly, I think I would say, “Google+ is the Facebook for matured people.” 

  2. I only speak for Android phones, because I have never used Google+ on any other OS and have little intentions of doing so in the future 

Google+ Daily Photography Themes

A look at how photography on Google+ is organised by its unique daily photography themes. Also a quick list of the active daily themes on Google+. (Many thanks to Ray Bilcliff for the list.) Read more →